Friday, November 29, 2019
Roman Architecture Notes Q: Why is the colosseum so historically significant? M assive stone amphitheater known as the Colosseum was commissioned around A.D. 70-72 by Emperor Vespasian of the Flavian dynasty as a gift to the Roman people In A.D. 80, Vespasian's son Titus opened the Colosseum-officially kn own as the Flavian Amphitheater with 100 days of games, including gladiatorial combats and wild animal fights A fter four centuries of active use, the magnificent arena fell into neglect, and up until the 18th century it was used as a source of building materials Measuring some 620 by 513 feet (190 by 155 meters), the Colosseum was the largest amphitheater in the Roman world. Inside, the Colosseum had seating for more than 50,000 spectators, who may have been arranged according to social ranking but were most likely packed into the space like sardines in a can (judging by evidence from the seating at other Roman amphitheaters). Awnings were unfurled from the top story in order to protect the audience from the hot Roman sun as they watched The vast majority of the combatants who fought in front of Colosseum audiences in Ancient Rome were men (though ther e were some female gladiators) Gladiators were generally slaves, condemne d criminals or prisoners of war Q: How did roman roads shrink the world? This is an expression which refers to travel being made quicker and easier by th e development of communications Romans build a vast road network in their empire which totalled 400,000 kilometres (250,000 miles) 20% of which (80,500 kilometres, 50,313 miles) were the famous stone-paved roads With the use of concrete and the arch, the Romans were able to build bridges which were much longer than ever before and could cross wider valleys and rivers This made it possible to cross mountains with much greater ease and to cross rivers much more qui ckly Bridges helped to develo p such a vast network of roads. Trajan's bridge crossed the river Danube and although it was on ly functional for a few decades It was the longest arch bridge for more than 1,000 years. It was 1,135 m (3,724 ft.) long, 15 m (49 ft.) wide, and 19 m (62 ft.) above the water level Q: How did the republic an period influence roman architecture? Republican Roman architecture was influenced by the Etruscans Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, begun in the late 6th century B.C.E., The temple was erected from local tufa on a high podium (its frontality stood out) The porch is very deep and the visitor is meant to approach from only one access point, rather than walk all the way around The presence of three cellas, or cult rooms, was also unique In the late Republican period, architects began to experiment with concrete, testing its capability to see how the material might allow them to build on a grand scale The Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia in modern day Palestrina is comprised of two complexes, an upper and a lower one The upper complex is built into a hillside and terraced with ramps and stairs leading from the terraces to the small theater and tholos temple at the pinnacle The entire compound is intricately woven together to manipulate the visitor's experience of sight, daylight and the a pproach to the sanctuary itself No longer dependent on post-and-lintel architecture, the builders utilized concrete to make a vast system of covered ramps, large te rraces, shops and barrel vaults Q: Where did roman architecture originate from? Roman architects continued to follow the guidelines established by the classical orders the Greeks had first shaped : Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian- The Romans did add ed their own ideas and their version of the Corinthian capital became much more decorative The Romans also created the composite capital which mixed the volute of the Ionic order with the aca nthus leaves of the Corinthian The Tuscan column was another adaptation of a traditional idea which was a form of Doric column but with a smaller capital, more slender shaft with out flutes, and a moulded base The Tuscan column (as it came to be known in the Renaissance period) was especially used
Monday, November 25, 2019
Women in American Politics at Ghost Writing Essays Essays Women in American Politics at Ghost Writing Essays Essay Women in American Politics at Ghost Writing Essays Essay American women in general have struggled in gaining peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance in both society and politicsghost (Sanbonmatsu, p. 368). More specifically, America has never had a woman president since the time of the Founding Fathers to the present time for several reasons. One is that American women have only recently experienced the liberty to go beyond the household tasks usually attributed to their gender roles. As a consequence, it is only recently that America has given ample room for women to excel in what has been the largely patriarchal structure of American politics, although the extent of participation given to American women are not yet completely realized.Two is that few American women have turned to politics and only few of these female politicians have actually taken the challenge to reshape the perception of male-dominance in the American presidency. And three is that even the current setting of American politics, which by and large is predomin antly occupied by men, contributes to the presence of the limitations faced by aspiring female politicians, which include either the low recognition of women candidates or the higher regard for male political aspirants within the political system itself (Thompson, p. 340).It is only in the late nineteenth century when women have gradually gained their liberty to participate in the affairs in the society and in the government with less restraint as compared to the earlier years. One thing that can be said from this is that there has been an awakening on the part of American women, knowing only quite recently the capabilities that they have in shaping the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s politics and using that knowledge to further expand their social recognition. However, even if women can now freely participate in the American political system, such freedom does not necessarily translate into having the large probability of, say, winning the local or national elections.It can also be said that the i nability to transform that freedom into the power to occupy important political positions rests on the earlier influence of men on the political system. Long before women were given the political capability to engage into politics, male Americans were already shaping the course of the American political system (Traube, p. 129). The very fact that we call the founders of the Constitution the Founding Fathers already hints at the patriarchal setting of the earlier days of the government. During those early years, the primary tasks of women were confined within households. They served as the Ã¢â¬ËornamentsÃ¢â¬â¢ of men during social gatherings, so to speak.Given the unwelcoming history of how women had to endure the status of being ineffective members of the political society as far as the setup of the early political system is concerned, it can be said that it did not encourage American women to turn to politics immediately after they were given the chance to participate in politi cs. More importantly, even though we now see American women wielding political power in some areas of the United States, with Hillary Clinton bidding for a shot at the presidency although failing to do so in the end, the presence of these women barely match the presence of males in the American political system. The male dominance in that system is overwhelming that it sizes up any identifiable presence of females even in local political areas.The overwhelming dominance of males in American politics also contributes to the realization of the full participation of women in local politics to Congress, and even to the national government. The very existence of the higher regard for male politicians as a result of the long history of the patriarchal American politics continues to this day which, apparently, casts a long shadow from any attempts of American women to break political barriers and suffuse female perspectives into a largely male domain.As long as there is a lack of support f rom the status quo to further empower women to taking the political course with less hindrance and with more encouragement, it will remain difficult for American women to establish a substantial political presence with reputation (Yuval-Davis, p. 11). Even if we assume that there are thousands, if not millions, of women across the many States of the country seeking to occupy political positions in the national government, the absence of a groundswell of support both from the numerous localities and from the national government will only water down these efforts into a state of ineffectiveness.The recent turn of events in the recently concluded democratic nominations between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton tells us that Clinton will not be having a shot at the presidential race this November 2008. Moreover, such turn of events only implies that even in these modern time were men and women are said to be equals before the eyes of the society female presidential nominees still have a lot to do in order to stand at par with their male counterparts. The confidence of the public remains an important issue that should be addressed by aspiring female politicians in the national government.However, it can also be said that the participation of Hillary Clinton in the presidential nominations is one big step in making the public aware that it is no longer impossible for American women to rise above the challenge of changing the public perception that women cannot go higher in the political hierarchy. The fact alone that Clinton was able to earn thousands and thousands of popular votes and many delegates in the democratic presidential nominations sheds light on the question of whether America has already begun to accept the possibility of having a woman as president. The question now is no longer about the possibility of electing a woman as president of the nation for that question has been answered by the example of Hillary Clinton. The more relevant question in todayÃ¢ â¬â¢s American society is whether or not more women will follow the lead of Clinton.Apparently, in order for more women to actively participate in American politics, several conditions should be met. These include but are not limited to: a substantial amount of local public support to begin with, a suitable financial backing from these supporters, and a support from the current political setting as well just to name a few. If these conditions are met, there are more chances for aspiring female politicians to successfully enter the political realm, both from the local and national levels of the government.Comparing and contrasting the political situations between the past and the present times, it can be observed that there have been substantial changes in the balance of gender participation. That is, instead of having just an obscure number of female politicians and political candidates, Americans now have the liberty to elect women candidates and that these women candidates now h ave the liberty to actively participate in elections as potential candidates. In the past, women were not even allowed to vote in the elections; today, women can not only vote, they can also enlist themselves as candidates for people to freely choose.Perhaps some time in the future, the United States will elect a female candidate as president, thereby setting a precedent for future generations to learn from and to follow. When that time comes, it can fully be said that gender is no longer an issue in national politics as it will simply become a thing of the past made irrelevant and obscured by the tides of history. And when that time comes, women in America will have certainly achieved one huge leap forward for themselves and for the nation. Sanbonmatsu, Kira. Gender-Related Political Knowledge and the Descriptive Representation of Women. Political Behavior 25.4 (2003): 368.Thompson, Becky. Multiracial Feminism: Recasting the Chronology of Second Wave Feminism. Feminist Studies 28.2 (2002): 340.Traube, Elizabeth G. The Popular In American Culture. Annual Review of Anthropology 25 (1996): 129.Yuval-Davis, Nira. Women, Citizenship and Difference. Feminist Review.57 (1997): 11.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
William Carey - Essay Example Indeed, as this essay hopes to establish, while William Carey's success emanated from his linguistic talents and his faith, it was, more significantly, the outcome of his rebellion against the Anglican faith and prevalent missionary model. The son of weavers, Carey's family could hardly afford to provide him with an education which extended beyond literacy and a rudimentary knowledge of history, geography, mathematics and science (George, 1991). His education certainly did not extend to either the classics or languages and, as a matter of fact, it was discontinued when, at the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a shoemaker. Nevertheless, his natural intellectual curiosity, compounded with his gift for languages, incited him to self-educate himself in both, successfully teaching himself Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Dutch, Italian and French (George, 1991). It was during his period of self-education and learning that Carey became increasingly discontented and disappointed with the Anglican Church. It was at this point, as George (1991) explains, that Carey increasingly found himself turning towards dissent against the Church of England and, eventually, the combined influence of his readings and an acquaintance, John Warr, motivated him to leave the church and join the Dissenters. His leaving of the Church of England and embrace of Dissent constitutes an important turning-point in Carey's life. As Parker (1914) explains, he did not leave the Church of England and the Anglicanism because he lacked faith but because his faith was not satisfied by that which the Church offered. Carey believed that the Anglican Church had, to a degree, lost its spiritual direction, had become too immersed in the material world and, as a direct result, was not fulfilling its duties towards God. That duty was the spreading of Christ's message to all parts of the world. It was with this in mind that not only did Carey become a Dissenter but joined with other Dissenters in the formation of a small Congregational Church (Parker, 1914). Although not even 18 at that time Carey had found his vocation and his life's work. From the Congregational Church, Carey joined the recently formed Particular Baptists and was baptized into the faith by Ryland, effectively declaring himself a committed Baptist (Mangalwadi, Magalwadi and Winter, 1999). In the Baptist faith, Carey found the spirituality which he had been searching for and which he had felt was lacking in the Church of England. This, however, did not mean that his period of rebellion had ended. It would not be an exaggeration to argue that it was during this period that his rebellion attained full expression and led him down a missionary's path. The spark which ignited Carey's most profound rebellion, a rebellion which was to inform and shape his life's work, was a Calvinist pamphlet which effectively stated that all men were not expected to, or responsible for, believing in the Gospels (Mangalwadi, Magalwadi and Winter, 1999). Carey wrote his disputation in The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation and, in a Church meeting, preached the responsibility of all Christians to spread the Gospels. Indeed, when ordered by J.R. Ryland not to presume his responsibility to preach God's word since "when God pleases to convert the heathen, he will do it without your aid or mine," Carey
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Genetically Modified Crops are harmful to the enviorment - Essay Example In reality, GMO crops are an invasive species and harmful to the natural environment. Numerous anti-GMO technology activists have come up to condemn the use of GMO within the ecological environment. The Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT Para. 1-10) has provided a biased analysis to the use of GMO crop in the natural environment discouraging the public in the agricultural sector to maintain a firm ground against the use of such crops. One of the reasons why the IRT discourages the proliferation of this technology is the fact that the growth of genetically engineered crops has negative permanent impacts on the environment. For instance, when cross pollination takes place, this species of crop will be spread into the environment and will exist there forever. Resultantly, this species will be propagated within the environment, reducing the number of natural crops existing in the natural ecosystem. The fact that GMO crops are superior in terms of production and the rapid growth ra te, it is not in order for this science to eliminate the natural species within the environment. In this light, GMO crops will hurt the environment by reducing the number of natural plants in existence. The IRT (Para. 3) provides statistical evidence to support its argument against the growth of GMO crops. Surveys conducted in the agriculture industry between 1996 and 2009 show that farmers who grow GMO foods have an increased usage of herbicides every year. The reason underlying this fact is that when weed resistant crops are developed, weeds undergo a genetic mutation forming new inexistent weed species. These Ã¢â¬Å"super weedsÃ¢â¬ are resistant to ordinary herbicides and demand more concentrated forms of chemicals. In the US, GMO crop growers experienced an increase in the cost of chemicals by about $300 million within a period of 12 years. This implies that the natural soils are concentrated with more chemicals increasing its toxicity levels. This is contrary to the proponen ts of this technology who argue that the use of genetically modified crops reduces the use of herbicides. The strength of IRT on the negative environmental impacts of these crops to the environment can be attributed to the statistical evidence that accompanies it. A third argument against the use of the adoption of the genetic modification technology in the agricultural sector is that this technology is a killer of bio-diversity. According to IRT (Para. 4), the proliferation of the GMO technology will hurt the entire bio species and may lead to extinction of even the most endangered species. The genetic modification technology uses lethal chemicals that have long term outstanding impacts on the environment. As these chemicals flow to the water bodies during rainy seasons, they will cause a great risk to the fish, amphibians and all water creatures in the water sources. Equally, all living species that consume GMO crops or water species will be at high risk of infection with untreata ble diseases. For instance, chemicals such as roundup that are used to develop weed resistant crops are cancerous and pose the risk of death to human beings. In essence, adoption of GMO technology will put the entire ecological system in danger including the creator of this technology. Carrington (Para. 1) is among the scholars who have evaluated the other side of the coin as regards the impact of GMO crops
Monday, November 18, 2019
Economics development - Assignment Example I will carry out a randomized control trial among 482 rural Guatemalan households, split into 38 neighborhoods clusters, for twelve weeks. The target population in this randomized control trial will mainly consist of infants aged below one year. Each cluster randomly assigned to water treatment with the disinfectant will be compared with the ones that continue to use their normal water treatment practices. Only households that had not previously taken part in any prior studies shall be eligible for this study. The participating households will be grouped four neighborhoods within every village. Using a spreadsheet with a random number generator, half of the neighborhoods in each village will be assigned to the intervention group while the remaining will be assigned to the control group. Households in the intervention group will use the disinfectant which is manufactured from chemicals used in commercial water treatment plants but has been specifically designed to work fast in small q uantities of water. Field workers will administer the treatment to participating households. Participants in the control group continued their normal water collection, treatment and storage practices. A standardized questionnaire on water use will be filled weekly by each participating household to record whether each household will have had a case of diarrhea. Samples of drinking water stored by every household will also be collected by each household and measured to determine the chlorine concentration. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea among the 482 households will be computed as the fraction of total days with diarrhea divided by the overall number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhea will then be compared using a rank sum test. I will use data gathered from the randomized control trial to determine the existence of any adequate power to detect a variation in the prevalence of diarrhea between control children and intervention children aged below one
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Management and Leadership Styles in Nursing Team Leaders This assignment will focus on the different management and leadership styles and the benefits and shortfalls will be discussed. Definition of the management and leadership styles will be included along with a brief discussion on trait theories This will be achieved by studying a working nurse team and concentrating on the nurse in charge and how she delegates, leads and organises the team. Firstly, this assignment will look at the different management and leadership styles followed by the analyst on how the nurse in charged relates these management and leadership styles in practice whilst managing a multi- disciplinary team within a hospital ward setting along with a conclusion of what I have learnt observing leadership style and how I was influenced from this form of leadership and how it may effect me in my future practice as qualified nurse According to Marquis Hudson (2000) leadership is a process of persuading and influencing others towards a goal as is composed of a wide variety of roles. .However Bowles And Bowles(2000) Define leadership as an interpersonal relationship of influence the product of personal characteristics rather than mere occupation of managerial positions. it is these personal characteristics which attract enthuse and motivate followers toward organizational goals. Each nurse has their own styles and leadership, their style depends on their values, traits. Characteristic, along with experience it is these individuals that changes began to come about. Trait theory of leadership is based on the assumption that people inherited specificate characteristics traits abilities and skills that make more suitable leaders than others Trait approach tries to identify traits and characteristics to distinguish leaders from followers Marquires and Huston (2006) suggested the great man theory is that people are born to lead and others are born to be led. Doyle and smith (2001) argues that Gandhi along with Napoleon inheritated the great man trait and highlight that they took control when needed .As suggested the term great man and not great woman ,This happened as in those times leadership was considered to be a males job only .Since trait theory was not enough to identify leaders from non leaders new theories of leadership began to appear such as are leaders developed through education and special training along with being learnt from observation and teaching creating the behaviour trait . A nurse leader must have a variety of leadership styles depending on the situation. Leaders are sought after for their expertise in their respective specialties and staff nurses look up to these individuals for guidance. Management is defined as a process about an improvement in knowledge skills, habits and attitudes of the employee in an organisation (sing 2008) Historically management has been given a greater importance in healthcare settings (marquis Huston 2006).However (McCallin2003) states The role of management in the time of Florence Nightingale was authoritarian and focused on rules, hierarchy and systems of punishment or reward to motivate workers. The characteristics of historic management would endeavour autocratic leaders. This type of management may of being accepting in the 19th century but today it no longer reflects the needs or values of the nursing profession Modern health care settings are complex and requires the registered nurse to have the ability to perform a multitude of roles and responsibility requires highly developed skills in decision making ,critical thinking along with the adherence to professional ,moral and legal standards .In addition to these skills leadership and management are considered essential for professional practice all are included in the Nursing Midwifery Council(2008) standards and are required for competent practice .the ability of register nurses to be effective leaders will impact on staff ,resources and setting and achievement of goals .this will in turn have implications for the quality of care Drucker (1999) cited in Weick and Evans(2003) stated todayÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢s nurses are graduates who have been described as knowledge workers who want to be led not managed . The word management and leadership are often interchangeable this is based on that they use similar skills bowman1997 and greenwood 1997 effective leadership is critical in any organisation and the key to effective is having the staff focused and working towards achieving the desired goal Convey (2006) argues the view that management is about doing things right and leadership is about doing the right thing student hand book Leaders and managers are not the same though they act in similar ways. A manager is responsible for setting objectives and using resources efficiently. A leader is responsible for motivating a group of people (team) to use their individual skills; therefore leadership is a vital skill of any successful manager There are several different leadership styles Three will be chosen and the advantage and disadvantages will be discussed. Bureaucratic leadership- bureaucratic leaders work by the book and ensures they follow protocols and procedures in accordance to how they are set bureaucratic leaders, expect team members to adhere to the protocols and procedures and follow he rules perfectly . ,this form of leadership can demoralise staff as well as put up barriers when needing to use their own initiative in addition place restraints on any changes that are needed. In acute workplaces where procedures save lives, a bureaucratic management style can help enforce health and safety rules. Autocratic leadership- Autocratic leaders sets objectives and allocates tasks and demands obedience they make as many decisions as possible and seek to have authority and control in decision making .Autocratic leaders tend to respond quickly and effectively and give the task a direction .However research claims that autocratic leaders can be disliked creating lack of faith and trust along with demotivated staff leading to stress within the relationship with work colleagues Marquis and Huston (2006) Democratic leadership Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬democrat leaders encouraged participation in the decision making by consulting team members ,delegating where possible and explaining their decisions along with sharing the responsibility Adaire(2002) Democratic leaders tend to have a good rapour with their team as work colleagues will tell a democratic leader when something has gone wrong. While employees simply hide it from an autocrat .democratic leadership is effective in professional organisations where the emphasis on training, professional and leadership development needs to be optimistic.(tomey 2004) Laizzez-Faire leadership Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Laizzez faire leaders are ones that leaves the employee to get on with their work with little or no interference, By giving the employee freedom it gives them the opportunity to show responsibility and initiative Marquris and Huston (2006)suggest that laizzez-faire leaders only motivate others when requested to do so .This form of leading can be effective if the leader monitors what is being achieved and communicates it back to the team regularly .regrettably ,it can also refer to situations where leaders are not exerting sufficient control I have chosen a nurse that through her compassion and leadership style as inspired me throughout my transition from a healthcare assistant to a student nurse .For the purpose of the confidentiality of this nurse she will be identified as C.B C.B has being a registered nurse for 9 years working in a busy public hospital in many departments including orthopaedic and surgical wards and now currently is a band 6 in the Accident and Emergency Department (A/E) She has decided to advance her knowledge and has undertaken many course .This has enabled her to increase her knowledge to enable her to gain confidence in her leadership role, as a band 6 in the A/E department I was fortunate not only to know C.B as a work colleague but to have the honour to have her as my mentor whilst I was a student in the A/E department. In the A/E department one member of the nursing team is chosen by the ward manager to become co-ordinator .The role involves delegating teams , communicating jobs needed to done, organising bed state in accordance to admission and discharges performing ward round an organisation of staff such as break times .The event being analysed will be communicating jobs from the ward round to different team members and how the coordinator deals with them .Research evidence suggests that an effective manager should have a detailed knowledge of all patient in his/her care and one way to achieve this is by hands on nursing(Douglas;1992, Lles 1997) Prioritizing becomes part of a nurses routine in every day practice (Waterworth 2003 ). Using her management skill of decision making C.B looked at the skill mix of the staff to be able to decide how nursing skills are best used (Humphreys 1996). This can be done by using your clinical judgement of the staff and by looking at the grades of the staff available. McElroy et al (1996) agrees with the using clinical judgement to ensure you make the best use of a nurseÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢s time. It should be recognised that skill mix research is vague. There is research on this area but it mainly looks at grade mix rather than skill mix (Spilsbury and Meyer 2005). One could question skill is more than just a grade, as the grade of the person does not always reflect the experience of the person. C.B had to break the tasks down. Ensuring she makes sufficient use of the skill mix available to ensure that adequate staff fulfils the tasks to ensure the quality of patient care give n is of the highest standard. From a management point this is a very important decision to make as it means that you can try to get the best out of your staff and that it is a way of ensuring all your tasks get complete and the management of clinical risk is not affected (Smith and Valentine 1999). This was achieved by using delegation skills. Delegation is the process from which responsibility for performing a task is transferred to another person who accepts responsibility for the task. Although Delegation is the process from which responsibility for performing a task is transferred to another person who accepts responsibility for the task. But although you have asked someone else to do the task overall the person delegating the task is still actually accountable (Sullivan and Decker 2005) NMC 2008 Delegation is an important management process and allow organization and leadership to function through others .Ellis and Hartley (2004) . Delegating a task to others have been found to be challenging for some nurses Hansen and Washburn (1996) As C.B has being allocated to be shift coordinator she needed to participate in regular ward round that occurred within the A/E department in addition to have control of any emergency situation that was happening within the A/E . During the ward round the C.B as the co-ordinator employs a bureaucratic approach as she is with the consultant and junior doctors In this situation she must ensure that everything is done correctly both by herself as well as the consultant and junior doctors After completion of the ward round C.B handed over to the relevant nurses the information that had been discussed during the ward round .There has been a lot of research on handovers which have looked at the contents Hesse (1983) Liukkonen (1993) and McMahon (1990), duration Matthews (1986), Sherlock (1995) Thurgood (1995). This literature all conclude that handovers. influences the delivery of care efficient handovers mean better patient care. Meisser et al (2007) suggested that leadership may be the one quality needed to improve handover Research conducted by Sexton et al (2004) argues that not all the relevant information is discussed during handover, preventing the delivery of care. Yet again C.B delegates ,jobs that have be ing requested on the ward round .in this situation she employs the transactional form of leadership style as she needs to ensure that all the correct information has been passed on and that the nurses looking after the appropriate team get the jobs done effectively and efficiently .This means the staff of the delegated teams agree to do the job request and do not changed any aspect of the job required .After delegating the new jobs to her staff the C.B than adopts a laissez-faire approach and allows the nurses to get on with their own jobs .However ,communication was still essential in the laissez-faire approach and the C.B regularly calls staff into an area to handover and update herself on the jobs being done ensuring the original job that was requested to herself on the ward round was being carried out. By means of discussing the handover with the delegated nurse C.B allowed them to put themselves forward for the patient Involving her work colleagues allow them to be involved in patient care this form of delegation can be highlighted from a democratic leader An emergency call came through to the A/E and C.B responsibility was to ensure the correct emergency team would be present for when the patient arrived C.B was in control due to her knowledge and was able to identify follow out this task as a leader of this emergency call C.B made decisions for the group .This type of leadership is autocratic and is appropriate when a dealing in emergency situations Research by Greenwood (1997 ) has found that leaders should adopt the style in which they find most comfortable to be an effective leader. Leadership styles vary according to various situations. One leadership style may be ineffective where another one is extremely successful. we are now able to see that leaders vary according to situations and their traits. Leaders are able to express themselves fully Bennis.(1998) they also know what they want and why they want it and how to communicate what they want in order to gain cooperation and support achieving goals to be met Bennis (1998) states leaders can find way to make a difference All nurse are in a position to become change agent but most importantly nurse leaders have the greatest influence on changed. The nurse act as the change agent when assisting patients in changing or altered behaviour .kozier et al (2000) states nurse often act to make changes in the system ,such as clinical care along with helping patient return back to good health. According to Marquis and Huston (2000) what distinguishes a successful changed agent is a person skilled in theory and implementation of planned changed to deal appropriately with these changes and connect all organisations that will be effected by the changed. This is achieved by means of good leadership and management skills
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Death Penalty: Revised During this class period today, seven adult men will be falsely accused of committing a serious crime, carrying a penalty of capital punishment. This means approximately 51,000 adult men are falsely accused of committing serious crimes each year. This figure is roughly the number of people who attended Super Bowl-Thirty-Three. Currently, there are 3,500 people on death row in thirty-eight states that support and carry out the death penalty while only twelve states have outlawed it. At the same time, more than half the countries in the world have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. Capital punishment is very relevant to each member of society. It is not just a male only issue. Every single one of us in this room has a father, brother, or significant others who could be affected. Capital punishment in America is morally unjust and should be eliminated because it is cruel and unusual; it kills innocent people; and it is used in a discriminatory manner. Sometimes criminals suffer more during their executions than is anticipated or planned. People sentenced to death are certain to face one of the following methods of execution still practiced today: firing squad, electric chair, lethal injection, gas chamber or hanging. But, injecting with poisonous chemicals, smothering with toxic gases, and electrocuting with high voltage are the preferred methods because bloody human tissues are not strewn about, as with other methods, therefore those people assigned to scour the execution site are less likely to experience psychological trauma. Although tidy, these styles of killing rarely succeed on the first attempt; instead, prisoners regularly suffer intense pain for long periods of time before expiring. According to Seideman, the case of Scotty Sutton is one example of many bungled executions that take place every month. While administering a lethal injection, all the executionerÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to find a vein have failed. Scotty started moaning and heaving in agony signaling a partial dose found his blood stream. Realizing the dose was not enough to end his life the executioner tried several failed attempts in the neck area hoping to find a main artery. Meanwhile, 300 pound, Scotty is still breathing after five minutes into this botched execution. The chemicals that were prepared and on hand have been seriously depleted. In a last ditch effort, the executioner signaled for help and directed a prison staff member to cut away a portion of the thick canvas jacket to expose an area of his chest to deliver a lethal dose directly into his heart; moments later Scotty expired (3).
Monday, November 11, 2019
Social exclusion (also referred to as marginalisation (British/International), or marginalization (U.S.)) is a concept used in many parts of the world to characterise contemporary forms of social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in the United Kingdom and Europe, and was first utilized in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics. Social exclusion refers to processes in which individuals or entire communities of people are systematically blocked from rights, opportunities and resources (e.g. housing, employment, healthcare, civic engagement, democratic participation and due process) that are normally available to members of society and which are key to social integration. The resulting alienation or disenfranchisement is often connected to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s social class, educational status, relationships in childhood and living standards. It also applies to some degree to people with a disability, minorities, people of all sexual orientations and gender identities (e.g., the LGBT community), to the elderly, and to youth. Anyone who deviates in any perceived way from the norm of a population may become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion. The outcome of social exclusion is that affected individuals or communities are prevented from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live. Material deprivation is the most common result of this exclusion. Ensuing poverty, emotional and psychological trauma, and its resulting diseases may result in catastrophic damage to lives, health, and psyche. Most of the characteristics listed in this article are present together in studies of social exclusion, due to exclusionÃ¢â¬â¢s multidimensionality.
Friday, November 8, 2019
8 Warning Signs You Need to Update Your Resume While job searching, you want to make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re coming across as the best and freshest person for the job. Here are 8 warning signs you need to update your resume. 1. Too much historyGet out of the past. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to list every single position youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever had, just the most recent and relevant ones. This is the first thing hiring managers look at on a resume. Make yours sing. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re going back 10 orÃ 15Ã years? Consider de-emphasizing that content and focusing instead on the good and grabbing most current stuff.2. Too much textFormat your resume to be reader friendly and to give the hiring manager the information they need most as quickly and as pleasingly as possible. Avoid long paragraphs and big sentences. Keep it short and snappy and keyword heavy.3. Too longKeep it to a page, unless your field demands something different. Make sure that a potential hirer can see what you need them to see in six seconds- which is sometimes all the time yo u get. Tailor your resume specifically to the job youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying for, and leave the rest of the content on your standard or generic document for other positions where it might be more relevant.4. Wasted address spaceYou donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to give out your personal snail mail address, unless otherwise specified. Current resume etiquette maintains that all you need in the way of contact information is your name, phone, and email. Anything more just wastes valuable space and could make you appear hopelessly retro.5. Your home numberBusiness line or cell, please. Who even has a home number anymore? This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t 1990. Plus, you want to set up boundaries. Do you really want recruiters calling while youÃ¢â¬â¢re sitting down to dinner with your kids?6. No links to social mediaThis is necessary nowadays. Add a link to your Twitter, LinkedIn, or Facebook profile. LinkedIn at the very least. But do make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve double-checked your profiles before linking them, and scou red for any inappropriate or inflammatory content!7. Career objectiveThis is way out of fashion, takes up valuable space, and bores the recruiter to tears before they even get to the part where you list your qualifications. Write a brief professional summary instead- two or three sentences that synthesize your strengths and experience and show why youÃ¢â¬â¢d be a unique and ideal fit for the position and the company.8. Ã¢â¬Å"References upon requestÃ¢â¬ This is a way outdated and redundant thing to include. Obviously youÃ¢â¬â¢ll provide references if requested. Take that sentence out and put something more valuable in its place.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
This Is An Assignment Where You Will Choose Either An Adult Classmate, This Is An Assignment Where You Will Choose Either An Adult Classmate, Co your first and (your A day with Mr. Raines Last weekend, I decided to interview one of my uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s friends, Mr. Michael Raines. He used to work with the United States Marine Corps. He left the service in 2009 and has been to Asia such as Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. I decided to interview him for this assignment because I would like to know his experiences in that side of the world. Mr. Raines was able to live in Japan because he went to boot camp for the United States Marine Corps in that country. He had just graduated from high school then. Japan made a big impression on him. It was then that he became interested in Asia. Eventually, he married a Filipina and lives in the Philippines for three years. During his stay there, he and his wife were asked assigned by their employer for six months in Thailand. It was this trip which gave him a chance to go to Cambodia and Laos, which were reachable by land travel. For employment and purposes, Mr. Raines was required to go to the two countries to process his visa. He only stayed in the two countries for one to two days and regrets not being able to see the famous sites there. Mr. Raines said that his experience in these Southeast Asian countries were eye-openers because the cultures were very different from American culture. For one, he shared that families find it pleasing to live together in one home. Unlike in America where children are eager to live on their own once they reach eighteen, sons and daughters who are twenty and above can be found still living with their parents and this is not looked down on. Another new experience for him was how people shared dishes together. In these countries, it was the norm to order or cook two or three dishes for sharing. It took a while for Mr. Raines to get used to all these changes. However, he said he would not trade them for anything else. He said his interest in Asia gave him the best gifts Ã¢â¬â his wife and two children.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Respond to the discussion about ethics and God (for online class) - Essay Example Response to 2nd comment: Aquinas, like me, believed in God. He explained how humans attain satisfaction and happiness through their belief in God. Whereas I discussed how people would differ in their compliance with ethics through a belief in God. What is common between our views is that a belief or disbelief in God makes a difference. Response to 3rd comment: You compliment your own agreement with my stance on the subject when you say that in some people, Ã¢â¬Å"there is no sense for ethics whatsoeverÃ¢â¬ . It is not that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any sense. Instead, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t make use of it. They may not display ethics either because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in God, or else, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t fear God even if they believe. Here I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to say that all atheists lack ethics. There are many who are not believers yet have an intrinsic desire to remain decent in their attitude, and hence display ethics. Therefore, ethics is there in every human being, though its disp lay is governed not only by the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in God. There are several other factors involved in it like personality traits, genetic traits etc. It is being hard for you to conceive how psychology is related to God because you tend to see God through the eyes of religion. Also, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t consider science in contrast with the concept of God, because many things said in the Holy Books are being proved by science. Response to class-mates opinions: 1. You have agreed that ethics is ingrained in humanity, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t consider it to be dependent upon a belief in God. I would like to ask you if a criminal is smart enough to escape worldly punishment, would he abstain from doing wrong then? Irrespective of the fact that ethics is there in him as he is a human, would he have any respect for ethics? Certainly not! Here you may argue that I am speaking of an ideal case in which the criminal is sure that he will not be taken to task for his wrong deed, whereas in act ual, every body knows there is a strict regulatory system in every country. So you should realize that ethics is not just about abstaining from crimes that are largely visible. Even if someone lies, he disregards ethics. So would anyone care not to lie if it benefits without a fear of God? Certainly not! I agree with you when you say that ethics is in-built feature of humanity. I also agree with you when you say that ethics would exist if God does not in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception. However, you need to realize that humans may have little regard for ethics, without a belief in God. 2. You have also said that a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s legal system is enough to cause humanÃ¢â¬â¢s to display ethics in their attitude. And also, you have considered such minor requirements of ethics as speaking truth under the umbrella term of Ã¢â¬Å"basic moral obligationÃ¢â¬ . I agree to you when you say that people would tend not to disregard ethics in public but would disregard it for basics. I also agree to you when you consider ethics as inside every human irrespective of his/her belief in God. Technically, you have constructed sentences in a way that make me say, Ã¢â¬Å"I totally agree with you!Ã¢â¬ You already seem to agree that people would disregard ethics if they think God does not exist. Because abstaining from bigger crimes and doing smaller ones does not mean that an individual respects ethics. It is just that he/she fears punishment. 3. I agree to you that religions provide their followers with a sound understanding of ethics. However, such understanding may vary
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Organizational Behavior & Leadership - Essay Example One of the major concerns prevailing in the company is that there is no expert in conducting professional performance evaluation. The previous engineer was very expert in conducting the evaluation, but he has left the company due to clashing personalities. The plant manager, presuming that he or others in the company, may not be able to conduct the evaluation, is thinking to skip the annual performance review, and this seems to be another big concern in the company. What makes him think of skipping the review was that the previous engineer left the company claiming that there would be none to do annual performance evaluation. In the current evaluation form of the company, another serious concern is taking decision regarding rating the engineers. The engineer feels friendliness as superior and he therefore would give medium rating on that aspect. Moreover, giving rating on personal qualities and attitudes also will be quite difficult for the engineer. In performance evaluation, the ma nagement should evaluate an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s outcomes such as quantities he produced, scraps he generated etc. Management is also expected to evaluate the behaviour of employees especially when they face difficulty to evaluate and identify the contribution of each group member. The third criteria is trait whereby individual traits are to be identified and evaluated. Traits such as attitude works, confidence in completing the tasks, dependence, being busy in work, positive approach etc are therefore related to various work tasks and they are to be evaluated by the management. Advantages and disadvantages of including supervisors, peers and subordinates in the performance evaluation Out of various performance evaluation methods in place today, 360-degree feedback is getting wider popularity among organizations. 360-degree method of evaluation is a latest approach to evaluating the performance from all different customers of an employee. A customer of an employee can be any or all of the manager, supervisors, bosses, peers, friends, clients, subordinates etc. Though present engineers in the case study scenario were not experienced in performance evaluation, they are confident in conducting 360-degree evaluation and they even found that it will be an effective technique for analyzing and evaluating the performance of engineers in the company. The main aim of 360-degree evaluation method is to pool the feedback from all of the customers of an employee. His customers are top manager, other levels of managers, suppliers, subordinates, clients, peers and other department representatives. By adopting the 360-degree performance evaluation, the organization hoping to give everyone a sense of participation in reviewing and evaluation processes and this in turn helps the manager gain more accurate information about the performance of employees (Robbins and Judge, 2011, p. 567). While adopting this method, engineers in the company, for instance, may be able to gain opinion s from various groups in relation to how is the work outcomes, attitudes, behaviour and traits of a particular employee. Many organizations that adopt 360-degree evaluation donÃ¢â¬â¢t spend sufficient time in training and educating the parties