Thursday, February 13, 2020

The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange case Essay

The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange case - Essay Example Competitive advantage is acquired once a business diversifies its products and ensures that they are of higher quality, fair prices and is locally and internationally available compared to their competitors. This strategy suggested by the story of foreign exchange and which has been adopted by Nestle has made this company attain a competitive advantage in the consumer healthy foods market where there are many giants. Its diversification into not only beverages and snacks but also baby food and the availability of the products worldwide has made it gain more and dominate the market. Its absolute advantage is derived from its corporate social responsibility which is giving back to the community as much as possible for sustainability purposes. Nestle is one of the companies that formed World Cocoa Foundation whose aim is to integrate with cocoa farmers all over the world and assist them on increasing their productivity, supplying their products and even dealing with the adverse environmental effects. It has also invested more than $500 million to deal with health problems like diabetes and obesity among

The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange case Essay

The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange case - Essay Example Competitive advantage is acquired once a business diversifies its products and ensures that they are of higher quality, fair prices and is locally and internationally available compared to their competitors. This strategy suggested by the story of foreign exchange and which has been adopted by Nestle has made this company attain a competitive advantage in the consumer healthy foods market where there are many giants. Its diversification into not only beverages and snacks but also baby food and the availability of the products worldwide has made it gain more and dominate the market. Its absolute advantage is derived from its corporate social responsibility which is giving back to the community as much as possible for sustainability purposes. Nestle is one of the companies that formed World Cocoa Foundation whose aim is to integrate with cocoa farmers all over the world and assist them on increasing their productivity, supplying their products and even dealing with the adverse environmental effects. It has also invested more than $500 million to deal with health problems like diabetes and obesity among

The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange case Essay

The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange case - Essay Example Competitive advantage is acquired once a business diversifies its products and ensures that they are of higher quality, fair prices and is locally and internationally available compared to their competitors. This strategy suggested by the story of foreign exchange and which has been adopted by Nestle has made this company attain a competitive advantage in the consumer healthy foods market where there are many giants. Its diversification into not only beverages and snacks but also baby food and the availability of the products worldwide has made it gain more and dominate the market. Its absolute advantage is derived from its corporate social responsibility which is giving back to the community as much as possible for sustainability purposes. Nestle is one of the companies that formed World Cocoa Foundation whose aim is to integrate with cocoa farmers all over the world and assist them on increasing their productivity, supplying their products and even dealing with the adverse environmental effects. It has also invested more than $500 million to deal with health problems like diabetes and obesity among

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Law Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Law Questions - Essay Example The International Terrorism Act of 1990 2. The Patriots Act 3. The UN Convention on International Terrorism 3 There are various definitions attached to terrorism. The United Nations, the Arab Convention and the European Convention all give divergent definitions to the term ‘terrorism’. The UN’s definition to terrorism is more descriptive of the acts that may be cited as terrorism acts. It adopts a broad description of acts that may be interpreted to be acts of terrorism by its members. This includes unlawful actions, including against civilians, carried out with an intention of causing serious bodily harm or the taking of hostages to induce a state of terror to the public. It therefore offers a broad definition to the term that allows other criminal acts against the state or citizens, which have not yet been classified as terrorist acts, to be categorized as terrorist acts. The Arab Convention on the other hand adopts a more liberal definition to terrorism. It def ines terrorism to encompass not only acts, but also threat of criminal action against the state or citizens of a given country. The convention also recognizes that terrorist threats may also be directed to the environment in an attempt to jeopardize national resources. The European convention adopts an imprecise definition to terrorism. ... 4 The yunis case amplifies America’s renewed efforts to curb international terrorism by employing the new antiterrorism laws. The case demonstrated the acceptance of recent international law principles of extraterritorial jurisdiction that give room for the prosecution of terrorists in US soil. It encompasses the international law principle that terrorism is an act condemned internationally and as such, terrorist suspects can be prosecuted in any national jurisdiction of the world. The Noriega case illustrated the application of domestic criminal laws universally to prosecute criminal activities committed outside the United States. The court relied on the international law principle of extended territorial jurisdiction to prosecute crimes committed outside the US national borders, whose effects had far-reaching consequences on American soil. The Yousef case illustrated the use of extraterritorial jurisdiction to prosecute the accused with charges of terrorism and conspiracy to commit criminal and terrorist acts within the territory of the United States. All the aforementioned cases are regarded as progressive cases as they form a future model for prosecuting terrorists within the US territory. They further show the expanded use of both the domestic law and international law to combat efficiently the threat of terrorism in America. 5 The Moussaoui case is important because it illustrates the success of the criminal justice system in trying and convicting suspected terrorists. It also shows that the best way to follow in promoting national security is reaffirmation of the values of the justice system. Moussaui wanted to review his confession to which the prosecution was opposed to such

Friday, January 24, 2020

The Very Idea of Humanity :: Philosophy Papers

The Very Idea of Humanity Why should we believe in such a thing as humanity? Should we accept appearances or take authority as our guide? Should we point to some pragmatic advantage to be gained by believing it, or is there proof? Philosophy offers such proof, contained in the dream hypothesis of the Buddha and Plato (and, more famously, Descartes). The dream hypothesis reveals our common ground. It refers to a familiar experience in terms of which young people of every time and place can understand why routine, authority, definition and first principle, category, criterion, perception and paradigm might fail. But the dream hypothesis is about the transition from sleeping to waking. As familiar, this transition is an excellent device for teaching that similar transitions can happen to one who is already awake. The dream hypothesis is about the soul, and the capacity to choose not only one's actions but also one's contexts. On the eve of the new millennium, we face responsibility for the results of our routine s. The dream hypothesis promises to awaken a taste for foresight and negotiation. When we all understand the dream hypothesis, we will no longer worship our routines, but will be better judges of their utility. We will stand together when we transcend our cultures and recognize the capacity of all citizens of every nation, tribe, and culture to grow, that is, when we awaken to the possibility of waking up. This is a plea for the dream hypothesis-a sales pitch, if you will. We are here under the banner, "Philosophy Educating Humanity." If philosophy is to educate humanity, the dream hypothesis will help prove to people of all tribes that there is such a thing as humanity. The dream hypothesis will introduce every child to its own humanity, but it will also introduce every child to the humanity of others. The dream hypothesis will increase the number of fully-functioning souls, that is to say, beings with the capacity to decide rationally what game to play, what interpretation to accept, what routine to follow. According to some philosophers, the dream hypothesis is at best useless. Russell said as much in Problems of Philosophy: There is no logical impossibility in the supposition that the whole of life is a dream, in which we ourselves create all the objects that come before us. But although this is not logically impossible, there is no reason whatever to

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Film Theory Outline Essay

From the very beginning of film, theorists have tried to dissect or understand the nature of the new medium of art. As a result various theories of film have emerged, such as feminist, auteur, psychoanalytical, Marxist, Editing and Structuralist. This essay attempts to give an outline of these various theories. One of the first theories to emerge is Editing theory, coming from the context of early Russian cinema. A key event in this regard is the experiment carried out by the film-maker Lev Kuleshov in 1918, in which he demonstrated that what the viewer perceives depends on how images are juxtaposed with each other through inter-cutting. See more: essay apa format Thus, when a human close-up is juxtaposed with a bowl of soup, the perception is of hunger, but when juxtaposed with a shot of a coffin the same close-up is perceived to express grief. Kuleshov concluded that juxtaposition was crucial towards the effect, and thus advocated the use montage in film-making. Other film-makers like Sergei Eisenstein played close attention to these findings, and made use of them in his masterpieces of montage, such as Battleship Potemkin and October. He also spelled out a comprehensive film theory based on editing in a highly influential essay from the late twenties. In it he outlined he various categories of editing, such as metric, rhythmic, tonal, overtonal, and intellectual. For example, with intellectual montage a scene may be inter-cut with something immediately unrelated, but which nevertheless works as metaphor is a more profound sense. The above came to constitute soviet montage theory, which was in contrast to the Hollywood system of continuity editing. Montage is a very visible component of film, whereas continuity editing aims to make inter-cutting invisible, so that the viewer may concentrate on the flow of the narrative in an easy way. Since the fifties a parallel theory of editing has emerged in the West which embodies the Hollywood ethos. In the same essay Eisenstein proposed a Hegelian interpretation of film montage, and which came to form the basis of Marxist film theory. He suggested that montage worked by the principle of the Hegelian dialectic, where thesis is said to beget antithesis, and are resolved in the end through synthesis. For example, when human close up is inter-cut with a glass of water, the viewer interprets this as thirst. If the face is the subject, then its antithesis is the object of vision, i. e. the glass of water. ‘Thirst’ is merely the synthesis of the two. It is present in neither of the two shots in consideration, yet emerges form the inter-cutting of the two. Of course, it was through the Hegelian dialectic that Marx had derived his famous concept of the proletariat revolution, and Marxism was the avowed principle of the Bolshevists. Therefore, it is not surprising that Eisenstein’s theories found a favorable audience in the Soviet Union. Indeed, it was instrumental in forming of Socialist realism, which became the state sponsored ideology in art. Marxist film theory soon found itself as defined in opposition to capitalistic and bourgeoisie art, in which the narrative of the protagonist finds prominence. Eisenstein’s films attempt to obliterate the presence of the protagonist, concentrating instead on the clash of images towards creating a larger ideological narrative. Even then he was accused by the authorities for not championing the workers, and for indulging in the internal mechanics of film, which was deemed to be a kind of formalism. Marxist theory held that the purpose of art is to overcome all ‘forms’ towards dialectical purification. Formalism was felt to be a bourgeoisie component. Marxist theory, as it has flourished both in the East and the West, concerns itself with dissecting films in order discredit bourgeoisie forms, usually those emerging from the Hollywood system. A native western theory of film was late in developing, and a crucial starting point was the theories developed by Andre Bazin, as editor of the French film magazine Cahiers du cinema. Up to that point films were seen as merely commercial vehicles, and Hollywood had evolved into a mighty and well groomed machine that churned films for the pleasure of the masses. Analyzing these films Bazin came to the conclusion that it was the director who left the most characteristic stamp, and as illustration he held up the work of directors like Alfred Hitchcock and Howard Hawks. He advocated that directors infuse their personal vision into the films under their charge, in order that they become the complete authors, which is the ideal state. This came to be known as the Auteur theory of film, which was given a more formal presentation by Francois Truffaut. Directors were described as using the camera as a pen towards composing their films. Another significant idea of Bazin’s was that film should aim for â€Å"objective reality†. This was in opposition to prevalent theory based on montage, which said that object of film is to manipulate reality. This instrumental approach led to the formulation of Structuralist film theory, which examines the structure of the components of film as they come together meaningfully. Instead of the dialectical approach of Eisenstein, the analysis takes into account conventional devices that have come to acquire meaning. The components that come into play are camera angle, lighting, juxtaposition, shot duration, cultural context etc. Meaning is usually accounted for by convention, and conventions change according to social and economic circumstances. For example, the highly commercial nature of Hollywood films has created the Institutional Mode of Representation, in which cinematic devices are used that make film viewing easy and exciting. For this reason it incorporates the established ideology with little departure from the norm. Other interpretations overlook the mechanics of production and instead considered the viewer as the focus of study. Psychoanalytic film theory offers such an interpretation. It is largely influenced by the views of the French philosopher Jacques Lacan regarding the child’s ‘mirror stage of development’. According to this theory the developing child endeavors to see a reflection of itself in all the objects it encounters. Psychoanalytic film theory replicates this situation with the viewer of film. The viewer is always looking for self-identification in the process of watching a film, and in this sense uses the medium as a mirror. It is usually the male protagonist who provides the focus of this identification, and functions as a conduit by which the desires of the viewer are played out. The film is said to have constructed a ‘gaze’ for the benefit of the viewer. Sometimes the gaze is simply the viewpoint of the protagonist; at other times, in the more graphic sequences, the viewer is allowed to gaze directly. Psychoanalytic theory is careful to point out that such identification is merely illusion, and therefore it differs from the identification of the child growing up, whose identifications come to form tangible character. Feminist film theory takes psychoanalytical theory a step further, in that it interprets the gaze as scopophilia, or ‘the desire to observe in secret’, which is also known as voyeurism. Such desire is sexual in origin, and feminist theory is framed in the context of the man wanted to gaze at the woman. Such a theory provides a ready explanation of the objectification of woman in film, a phenomena that has been noticed from the very beginnings of the medium. As in psychoanalytical theory, the male protagonist provides the focus of identification, but his specific desire is to objectify the women in the film, a desire which is vicariously shared by the viewer. There are three levels of objectification. First there is the camera’s point of view, then that of the protagonist, and finally that of the viewer himself, who is allowed to gaze at the women directly. Critics of this theory point out that the female viewer is not taken into account, for women also go to see the same films, and they enjoy them too. However Laura Mulvey has given convincing arguments to explain female enjoyment. She says that it is either through a masochistic identification, or a transsexual one. In the first the female takes secret pleasure in male domination. In the second, the female identifies with the male protagonist, and thus shares in the pleasure that men take. However, she is also continuously slipping back into her female identity, which is said to be a mask that she wears. Identification with the male pushes her uncomfortably close to the image of the subjected women, and the masquerade allows her to maintain a distance from it. Feminist film theory is a harsh criticism of the norms of cinema, which is also blamed on the patriarchal norms of society. The advocacy is to make films that overcome the norms, and therefore to make films that are free from female objectification.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Realism vs. Romanticism in Hawthornes Young Goodman...

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s classic tale â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is a good example of a short story embodying both characteristics of realism and characteristics of romanticism. M. H. Abrams defines romantic themes in prominent writers of this school in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as being five in number: (1) innovations in the materials, forms and style; (2) that the work involve a â€Å"spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings†; (3) that external nature be a persistent subject with a â€Å"sensuous nuance† and accuracy in its description; (4) that the reader be invited to identify the protagonist with the author himself; and (5) that this be an age of â€Å"new beginnings and high possibilities† for the person (177-79).†¦show more content†¦Well; shes a blessed angel on earth; and after this one night, Ill cling to her skirts and follow her to Heaven. With this excellent resolve for the future, Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose. After Deacon Gookin and the minister had passed by, the reader feels the very feelings of Brown: Whither, then, could these holy men be journeying, so deep into the heathen wilderness? Young Goodman Brown caught hold of a tree, for support, being ready to sink down on the ground, faint and overburthened with the heavy sickness of his heart. He looked up to the sky, doubting whether there really was a Heaven above him. Secondly, â€Å"a spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings† is Abrams’ next criterion for romantic writing. And for a certainty there is considerably much of this in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† especially as the climax approaches. Faith! shouted Goodman Brown, in a voice of agony and desperation; and the echoes of the forest mocked him, crying- Faith! Faith! as if bewildered wretches were seeking her, all through the wilderness. The cry of grief, rage, and terror, was yet piercing the night, when the unhappy husband held his breath for a response. . . .My Faith is gone! cried he, after one stupefied moment. There is no good on earth; and sin is but a name. Come, devil! for to thee is this world given. And